Fire testing and classification of coverings

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The fire technical properties of coverings are important in order to protect underlying products against damage in case of fire.

Fire safety requirements for coverings
Fire safety requirements for coverings in Denmark are outlined in the Building Regulations.

Depending on the purposes for which they are to be used in a building, coverings may be fire classified in the European system, for example, K1 10 (comprising exclusively of products of at least material class
B-s1,d10) or K2 10 (comprising exclusively of materials of at least material class D-s2,d2).

In the Danish system, there are 2 classes of fire: Class 1 (consists exclusively of Class A materials) or Class 2 (consists exclusively of Class B materials).

If necessary, see the Danish Enterprise and Construction Authority’s Collection of examples for fire protection of buildings for determination of the class of fire.

Before the fire test
The following points have to be clarified prior to the fire testing of coverings:

  1. Which fire classification is required for the covering?
  2. How is the covering to be mounted, and are there any underlying cavities, joints or fixings?
  3. Which substrate do you wish the covering to be tested on? Normally, a 19 mm chipboard with a density of 650 kg/m³ is used. Coverings that are to protect underlying materials with a density of less than 300 kg/m³ must be tested on the actual substrate to which they are to be applied.

Fire testing
Fire testing of a covering can be carried out according to two test standards, namely the Danish standard or the European standard respectively.

The Danish test method is outlined in the standard DS/INSTA 411. A positive result is classified according to DS 1065-2.

The European test method is outlined in standard DS/EN 14135 Coverings – Determination of fire protection ability. A positive result will be able to be used for a European classification in accordance with DS/EN 13501-2 or according to the Danish standard, DS 1065-2.

Please note that the Danish test cannot be used for a European classification. If the covering is to be used abroad, it must be tested using the European test method which is slightly stricter than the Danish test method.

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